If only love could keep beloved pets alive, hamsters could live longer than a few short years. This is longer than many other small animals, but it pales in comparison to the decade-long lifespans of cats and dogs.
A hamster naturally lives a shorter life, even when healthy, but they also have fragile bodies more prone to damage, disease, and deterioration. In this article, we explore why this is and what you can do to keep them as healthy as possible.
Hamsters Live Shorter Lives in the Wild
Like most animals, hamsters live longer in captivity than they do in the wild as long as they’re provided appropriate care. A hamster’s average age at death is around 21 months (1.75 years), but many live as long as 2 years and sometimes 3 in the right conditions. Syrian hamsters usually live longer than the smaller dwarf species.
The rate of deterioration in domesticated hamsters is slower than what their wild cousins are subjected to. Their environment is more controlled, and they don’t need to deal with the extra stress of the hazards of roaming free and foraging.
Still, hamsters have the bodies of prey animals and cannot escape the fragility of their bodies.
Hamsters are Naturally More Fragile
The animals that live the longest have unique traits that bring them close to immortality, but hamsters are not one of them. Instead, they have thin skin and fragile bones that tear and break easily. A short fall from their cage door or a splinter in their paw could prove fatal before you realize something is wrong.
Hamsters are also victims of overbreeding. Pet stores that worry more about quantity than quality won’t worry about the health of the parents, and hybridization attempts further dilute the gene pool.
Issues like inbreeding often go unchecked and increase a hamster’s chances of developing diseases later on. Even if the hamster doesn’t pick up a hereditary disease, many start their lives with low birth immunity.
Hamsters are Prone to Many Diseases
Even without issues like overbreeding or inbreeding, hamsters are susceptible to a number of diseases.
Wet tail is the most common deadly disease, but it’s also treatable if caught early enough. It usually affects young hamsters, especially if they’re overstressed or fed a poor diet. Wet tail is recognized by diarrhea, dehydration, wetness around the genitals, and anorexia.
Other illnesses, like heart disease and cancer, are often unavoidable outside of selective breeding. Congestive heart failure is suspected as the leading cause of spontaneous death in older hamsters. Cancer, which is more common in Djungarian (Winter White) Hamsters), usually manifests in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, or appendages.
Another issue is treating the disease once a hamster is diagnosed. Their small size and already short lifespans make it difficult to test and measure treatment, meaning it’s usually better to manage pain or euthanize an afflicted hamster.
Stress Weakens a Hamster’s Immune System
While hamsters start life with a weak immune system, stress from major changes and improper care exacerbate the issue. Hamsters may fall ill soon after you first take them home for this reason.
Inadequate housing–such as overcrowding, too few hiding spots, lack of enrichment, and improper space–suppresses a hamster’s immune system. Like humans, the more energy they spend on stress, the less they have to combat illness.
Bacteria like Clostridium piliforme take advantage of stressed hamsters, leading to issues like wet tail or diarrhea that prove fatal if not addressed.
It’s important to treat any signs of illness or changes in behavior as a serious warning sign. These usually include aggression, hyperactivity, hair loss, poor grooming, excessive salivation, and anorexia, but any changes merit prompt action.
Incorrect Diet Makes Hamsters More Susceptible to Illness
When foraging in nature, hamsters can find what they need to eat to ensure a balanced diet. As your companion, they rely on you to find a quality food source that’s both tasty and healthy.
Most block foods do well enough to cover the basic nutrition requirements of hamsters, but they shouldn’t live off pellets alone. This unbalanced diet contributes to issues like obesity and heart problems that cut months off an already short life.
A hamster’s diet should consist of a reputable commercial feed as a baseline with a seed mix for vitamins, fats, and minerals. Fresh treats like apples or papaya further enrich the diet when served in moderation. Hamsters also benefit from protein from bugs, egg whites, and even meat.
Understanding why hamsters die so easily is part of doing research before choosing a pet and learning how to care for them properly. As long as you can offer the basics, you give your hamster the best chance of leading a full, healthy life.